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What is Frozen Shoulder? I Stages, Symptoms & Treatments

Shoulder Pain

Introduction

Frozen shoulder, also known as adhesive capsulitis, is a painful and debilitating condition that affects the shoulder joint. It is a condition that causes a gradual loss of movement in the shoulder joint. The shoulder joint is a ball and socket joint and it is one of the most mobile joints in the body. However with a frozen shoulder, the joint feels stuck and its movement is limited. The shoulder capsule thickens and becomes stiff and tight. Thick bands of tissue called adhesions develop and there will be less synovial fluid in the joint to lubricate the joint, which will make it painful and stiff to move.

Symptoms and Causes

Individuals experiencing frozen shoulder often find their daily activities compromised due to varying degrees of symptoms such as:

  • Dull and aching pain.
  • Stiffness and difficulty to move the shoulder joint.
  • Typically worse in the earlier phase of the condition.
  • Usually located over the outer shoulder area and sometimes the upper arm.

There is no known specific cause for frozen shoulders. It is most often caused by inflammation of the tissues surrounding the joint or immobilisation of the shoulder after an arm injury or inflammation of the muscles and tendons (such as rotator cuff tendinitis or bursitis).

The following are some of the risk factors for frozen shoulder:

  • People aged 40 and older, particularly women
  • History of immobility and injury/trauma to the shoulder
  • Stroke
  • Recovery from surgery
  • Systemic diseases such as diabetes, thyroid disorders, cardiovascular diseases and Parkinson’s disease.

 

Stages of Frozen Shoulder

For people who are suffering from this condition, symptoms may develop suddenly and have a slow recovery phase. Recovery may take up to 2 or 3 years. Frozen shoulder develops in three stages:

 Stage 1 – Freezing

Any movement of the shoulder causes pain, and the shoulder’s ability to move becomes limited. Typically at this stage, the patient will experience an increase in pain. The freezing stage lasts from 2 to 9 months

Stage 2 – Frozen

Painful symptoms may lessen during this stage however stiffness remains or increases. Using the shoulder for daily activities during this stage may be very difficult. The frozen stage lasts from 4 to 12 months.  

 Stage 3 – Thawing

Shoulder movements begin to improve. There will be a complete or near complete return to normal strength and motion. This thawing stage typically takes anywhere from 6 months to 2 years.

Physiotherapy Treatment for Frozen Shoulder

Fortunately, there are a range of effective physiotherapy treatments for frozen shoulders to alleviate symptoms and restore shoulder function. At Synapse Physiotherapy, we will be able to help address these symptoms and help you recover to full health. Undoubtedly, physiotherapy plays a crucial role in managing frozen shoulders. Here at Synapse Physiotherapy, we aim to reduce pain, increase range of motion, and enhance overall shoulder function. Our professionally trained physiotherapists employ a variety of techniques, exercises, and modalities to achieve these goals. The following are some of the treatment techniques and exercises that are carried out by our physiotherapists: 

1. Passive Range of Motion (PROM) Exercises:

Passive range of motion exercises involve a therapist gently moving the patient’s arm through various motions. This helps maintain flexibility and prevent further stiffness. PROM exercises are particularly beneficial in the painful and early stages of shoulder dysfunction.

 2. Active Range of Motion (AROM) Exercises:

As pain decreases and the shoulder begins to thaw, active range of motion exercises become crucial. Patients are encouraged to perform controlled movements on their own, gradually improving their ability to move the shoulder. These exercises are designed to restore strength and flexibility.

 3. Stretching Exercises: 

Stretching exercises target the muscles and connective tissues around the shoulder joint. Stretching helps improve flexibility and reduce stiffness. Therapists may incorporate techniques such as wall stretches, pendulum exercises, and towel stretches to address specific areas of tightness. 

4. Strengthening Exercises:

Strengthening the muscles surrounding the shoulder is essential for restoring function. Therapists design tailored exercise programs that focus on building strength in a progressive manner. Resistance bands, dumbbells, and bodyweight exercises may be utilised to target specific muscle groups. 

5. Joint Mobilisation:

Joint mobilisation involves the therapist gently moving the joint in specific directions to improve its mobility. This technique helps reduce stiffness and enhances the shoulder range of motion. It is often used in conjunction with other exercises to optimise results.

6. Heat and Cold Therapy:

Applying heat or cold to the affected shoulder can provide relief from pain and inflammation. Heat therapy helps relax muscles and increase blood flow, while cold therapy helps reduce swelling. Physios may recommend alternating between these modalities based on the individual’s needs.

7. Ultrasound Therapy:

Ultrasound therapy uses sound waves to stimulate deep tissues and promote healing. It can be effective in reducing pain and inflammation associated with frozen shoulders. Physios may incorporate ultrasound as part of a comprehensive treatment plan.

8. Electrical Stimulation:

Electrical stimulation, such as transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), can be employed to alleviate pain. By sending low-level electrical currents through the skin, this technique disrupts pain signals and provides relief. It is often used in combination with other therapeutic interventions.

9. Home Exercise Programs:

To ensure continuity of care, our physiotherapists will prescribe home exercise programs. They are designed to empower individuals to continue their rehabilitation independently. Consistent engagement with prescribed exercises contributes significantly to the success of physiotherapy treatment.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Frozen Shoulder Treatment

1. What causes frozen shoulders, and who is at risk?

Frozen shoulders can develop from various factors, including inflammation of the tissues surrounding the joint, immobilization after injury, or underlying health conditions such as diabetes, stroke, or thyroid disorders. People aged 40 and older, particularly women, individuals with a history of shoulder immobility or trauma, and those recovering from surgery are at higher risk.

2. How long does it take to recover from a frozen shoulder with physiotherapy?

The recovery timeline for frozen shoulder varies depending on the severity of the condition and individual response to treatment. With consistent physiotherapy sessions and home exercises, significant improvement can be seen within a few weeks to months. However, complete recovery may take up to two to three years, especially in severe cases.

3. Is physiotherapy painful for frozen shoulder treatment?

Physiotherapy for frozen shoulder aims to alleviate pain and improve mobility, but some discomfort may be experienced during certain exercises or therapeutic modalities. However, the level of discomfort should be manageable and should not cause excessive pain. Your physiotherapist will adjust the treatment plan according to your tolerance levels.

4. Can frozen shoulder recur after treatment?

While frozen shoulder can recur in some cases, especially if underlying risk factors are not addressed, proper management and rehabilitation can significantly reduce the likelihood of recurrence. Following a comprehensive physiotherapy program, maintaining shoulder mobility through regular exercises, and addressing any contributing factors can help prevent recurrence.

5. Are there any precautions to take during frozen shoulder physiotherapy?

During frozen shoulder physiotherapy, it’s essential to communicate any discomfort or pain to your physiotherapist. They can adjust the intensity or technique of exercises accordingly. It’s also essential to follow the prescribed home exercise program diligently to maximize the benefits of treatment. Additionally, avoiding activities that exacerbate shoulder pain or stiffness can help facilitate recovery.

Conclusion

Frozen shoulders can be a challenging condition, but with the right physiotherapy interventions, individuals can experience significant improvement in pain and mobility. The key to successful treatment lies in early intervention and a tailored approach to address the specific needs of each patient. Whether through targeted exercises, modalities, or a combination of therapies, physiotherapy offers a path to improved mobility and restoring the joy of pain-free shoulder movement. If you suspect you have frozen shoulder symptoms, come to Synapse Physiotherapy for a consultation today with a qualified physiotherapist and take a crucial step towards a comprehensive and effective treatment plan to tackle frozen shoulder. 

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Top 3 Body Pain Problems in Malaysia: Physiotherapy Ampang

Muscle Pain, Shoulder Pain

Introduction

Lower Back Pain

Lower back pain (LBP) is a common complaint characterized by discomfort between the lower ribcage and buttocks. It can be acute, sub-acute, or chronic, impacting movement and quality of life. LBP can be specific or non-specific, with non-specific cases comprising the majority. Symptoms include dull or intense pain, often radiating to the legs, affecting mobility and causing sleep disturbances. Chronic LBP can lead to functional limitations and reduced productivity.

Neck Pain

Acute neck pain is prevalent and often resolves within weeks, while chronic neck pain persists beyond three months, with psychological stress playing a role in its development. Symptoms include stiffness, sharp pain, and radiating discomfort to the head, trunk, shoulders, and arms. Neck pain can be accompanied by numbness, tingling, weakness, and headaches, necessitating medical evaluation for proper management.

Knee Osteoarthritis

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) results from the gradual breakdown of articular cartilage, leading to pain, stiffness, and swelling in the knee joint. It can be primary or secondary, with symptoms worsening over time and affecting mobility. Risk factors include age, obesity, and occupational hazards, contributing to the high prevalence of knee OA in Malaysia’s elderly population.

Prevalence

Studies have highlighted the significant prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in Malaysia, particularly in the lower back, neck, and knee regions. Factors such as sedentary lifestyles, occupational hazards, obesity, and an aging population contribute to the high burden of these conditions in the country.

Role of Physiotherapy

Physiotherapy plays a crucial role in managing lower back pain, neck pain, and knee osteoarthritis by employing a comprehensive approach focused on pain management, functional improvement, and prevention of recurrent symptoms. Modalities such as heat and cold therapy, manual therapy techniques, and tailored exercise programs are utilized to alleviate pain, improve mobility, and enhance overall well-being.

Characteristics 

Chronic ankle instability is defined by enduring feelings of apprehension within the ankle, recurrent instances of the ankle giving way, and repeated ankle sprains persisting for a minimum of six months post-initial sprain. Patients with chronic ankle instability typically have a medical history characterized by repeated ankle sprains and significant inversion injuries, often impacting the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL), the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL), and/or the posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL). 

Symptoms indicative of chronic ankle instability encompass lateral ankle pain and ongoing swelling. As a result of these injuries, they tend to take specific precautions to avoid weight-bearing activities, strenuous exercises, and walking on uneven or rough surfaces.

 

Regarding impairments associated with chronic ankle instability, notable factors include heightened ligamentous laxity and proprioceptive deficits. These impairments contribute to limitations in various activities such as walking and jumping. Furthermore, in terms of participation, individuals with chronic ankle instability may find themselves ceasing participation in sports, withdrawing from or reducing occupational involvement, experiencing decreased exercise levels, and even altering the type of sport they engage in

 

Causes 

Chronic ankle instability is primarily attributed to two key factors: diminished proprioceptive abilities stemming from the loss of mechanoreceptors and weakened invertor and evertor muscle strength.

Following a lateral ankle sprain (LAS), not only are ligaments structurally compromised, but the mechanoreceptors within joint capsules, ligaments, and tendons surrounding the ankle complex also sustain damage. These mechanoreceptors play a vital role in relaying feedback about joint pressure and tension, aiding in the perception of joint movement and position. This sensory input is integrated with visual and vestibular cues, forming a complex control system responsible for regulating posture and coordination. When injury disrupts afferent input, it can lead to alterations in corrective muscular contractions, potentially contributing to functional impairments and chronic instability post-injury.

 

Proprioception

Proprioception is defined as the sensory information relayed to the central nervous system by mechanoreceptors located in various tissues including joint capsules, ligaments, muscles, tendons, and skin. Trauma to tissues containing these mechanoreceptors can result in partial differentiation, leading to proprioceptive deficits that contribute to chronic ankle instability. Studies have shown postural control deficits during quiet standing following acute LAS and in individuals with chronic ankle instability.

 

Muscle Weakness

Additionally, researchers have identified weakness in the peroneal muscles as a contributing factor to chronic ankle instability. Deficits in evertor strength reduce the muscles’ ability to resist inversion and return the foot to a neutral position, potentially increasing susceptibility to inversion sprains. Notably, eccentric evertor weakness has been observed in patients with chronic ankle instability.

 

Management 

In contrast to acute ankle sprains, chronic ankle instability often necessitates surgical intervention. However, before resorting to surgery, non-surgical approaches are strongly advocated for patients with chronic ankle instability. Research indicates that repetitive ankle joint injuries lead to neuro-sensory, proprioceptive, and mechanical impairments. Therefore, exercises aimed at enhancing proprioception, balance, and functional capacity are typically incorporated into treatment protocols following an ankle joint injury, alongside muscle strengthening exercises.



Neuromuscular training

 

Neuromuscular training involves the unconscious activation of dynamic restraints, which prepare and respond to joint motion and loads, thereby maintaining and restoring functional joint stability. The primary objectives of neuromuscular training are twofold: first, to enhance lower limb postural control, and second, to rehabilitate active stability through targeted training methods.

 

Balance training 

Balance training can affect multiple joints and produce overall improvements. It significantly improves functionality, instability, and dynamic balance outcomes in people with chronic ankle instability

 

Mobilization 

Limited ankle dorsiflexion during jogging and walking presents a risk factor for recurrent sprains due to several factors. Firstly, insufficient dorsiflexion restricts the ankle joint’s ability to reach its closed-packed position during stance, compromising its stability. Secondly, individuals with limited dorsiflexion may have a tendency to lock the midfoot in supination, further compromising the ankle’s ability to adapt to uneven surfaces or sudden changes in terrain. Lastly, the lateral movement of the center of gravity caused by limited dorsiflexion increases the vulnerability of the ankle joint to supination and subsequent sprains, as the joint lacks the necessary flexibility to absorb and adapt to these forces effectively. Hence, mobilization with movement intervention will definitely benefit patients with chronic ankle instability by increasing dorsiflexion range of motion. 

 

Taping 

Physiotherapists will apply taping in order to improve patients’ perceptions of stability and decrease mechanical laxity. 

 

Strengthening exercise

 

Chronic ankle instability often leads to weakness in the muscles surrounding the ankle joint, including the peroneal muscles, which play a crucial role in stabilizing the ankle during movement. Strengthening exercises help to rebuild strength in these muscles, improving their ability to support and protect the ankle joint.

 

Associated lesions

Chronic ankle instability is often associated with lesions that evolve from contributory factors. They do not necessarily occur with chronic ankle instability, and if any, not all these lesions occur together. 



Sinus tarsi syndrome is frequently observed in specific populations such as basketball and volleyball players, dancers, overweight individuals, as well as those with flatfoot and hyperpronation deformities. This condition manifests as pain and tenderness in the sinus tarsi, located on the lateral side of the hindfoot. It can develop after a single severe ankle sprain or as a result of repetitive ankle injuries (Al-Kenani & Al-Mohrej, 2016).



Osteochondral defects (OCD) are injuries that affect the talus bone. These injuries can manifest as the blistering of cartilage layers, the formation of cyst-like lesions within the bone, or even fractures involving both bone and cartilage layers. OCD can be caused by a single traumatic event or recurrent trauma over time. Symptoms of OCD typically include swelling, instability in the ankle joint, and persistent pain that extends over a prolonged period (Al-Kenani & Al-Mohrej, 2016). 

 

Peroneal tendinopathy is chronic inflammation of the peroneal tendon resulting in weakness of the active ankle stabilizers. This happens when a person performs a repetitive activity that stresses the tendon over a long period. In addition, poor and rapid training and poor shoe wear may cause peroneal tendinosis. People who have a hindfoot varus posture are more likely to experience peroneal tendinosis (Al-Kenani & Al-Mohrej, 2016).

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. How long does it take to see improvement with physiotherapy for lower back pain?

The timeframe for improvement varies depending on the severity and underlying cause of the pain. Generally, patients may experience relief within a few weeks of starting physiotherapy, with continued improvement over time.

2. Is physiotherapy effective for chronic neck pain?

Yes, physiotherapy can be effective in managing chronic neck pain by addressing underlying issues, improving mobility, and reducing pain intensity. However, the treatment approach may vary based on individual needs and response to therapy.

3. Can physiotherapy prevent the progression of knee osteoarthritis?

While physiotherapy cannot reverse the degenerative process of osteoarthritis, it can help manage symptoms, improve joint function, and delay disease progression. Through targeted exercises and lifestyle modifications, physiotherapy aims to optimize the quality of life for individuals with knee OA.

4. Are there any side effects associated with physiotherapy for musculoskeletal pain?

Physiotherapy is generally safe, with minimal side effects. However, some patients may experience temporary soreness or discomfort following certain treatments. These effects are usually transient and outweighed by the long-term benefits of therapy.

5. How can I find a qualified physiotherapist for my musculoskeletal pain in Ampang?

You can search online or ask for recommendations from your healthcare provider. Look for physiotherapy clinics like Synapse Physiotherapy that offer personalized care and have experienced professionals specializing in musculoskeletal rehabilitation.

Conclusion

In conclusion, musculoskeletal pain poses a significant challenge in Malaysia, affecting individuals’ daily lives and overall well-being. Physiotherapy offers a holistic approach to managing conditions like lower back pain, neck pain, and knee osteoarthritis, addressing pain, improving function, and enhancing quality of life. At Synapse Physiotherapy in Ampang, our team is dedicated to providing personalized care tailored to your specific needs, helping you achieve better musculoskeletal health and overall wellness. Don’t let pain hold you back; start your journey to recovery with physiotherapy today.

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Scoliosis Chiropractor vs Physiotherapist | Synapse

Shoulder Pain

Introduction

Scoliosis is a complex deformity of the spine that manifests in three planes, involving curvature in the frontal plane, axial rotation in the horizontal plane, and deformities in the sagittal plane. The diagnosis is typically established by measuring the angle of curvature, known as the Cobb angle, which is considered significant if it reaches at least 10°. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) specifically refers to a three-dimensional spinal deformity that emerges during puberty in otherwise healthy children. While scoliosis can be diagnosed at any age, the majority of cases are identified during adolescence, typically between the ages of 10 and 18. As the most common pediatric deformity of the spine, scoliosis has a global incidence in the pediatric population ranging from 0.93% to 12%, according to estimates from the International Society on Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT). Early detection and appropriate management are critical for addressing the challenges posed by scoliosis, emphasising the importance of ongoing research and effective treatment approaches in this field (Seleviciene et al., 2022). 

Classification

Idiopathic scoliosis 

Idiopathic scoliosis, constituting approximately 80% of all cases, is diagnosed when other potential causes of spinal curvature have been excluded. In the adult population, scoliosis has a prevalence of more than 8% among individuals over the age of 25, and this prevalence rises to 68% in those aged over 60 due to degenerative changes in the aging spine. Moreover, there is a 2.5% prevalence of scoliosis in the general population with a Cobb angle larger than 10 degrees. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, the most common type, typically emerges during puberty and accounts for around 90% of cases of idiopathic scoliosis in children.

This condition is further classified into distinct subgroups based on the age of onset. Infantile scoliosis, developing between the ages of 0 and 3 years, exhibits a prevalence of 1%. Juvenile scoliosis, occurring between the ages of 4 and 10 years, constitutes 10–15% of all idiopathic scoliosis cases in children. Notably, untreated curves in juvenile scoliosis can lead to serious cardiopulmonary complications, and surgical intervention becomes necessary in 95% of cases with curves measuring 30 degrees or more. Adolescent scoliosis, emerging between the ages of 11 and 18 years, is the most prevalent subgroup, representing approximately 90% of cases in children.

 

Congenital scoliosis 

Congenital scoliosis is a condition that results from embryological malformations affecting one or more vertebrae, and it can occur in any segment of the spine. The abnormalities in the vertebrae lead to curvature and other deformities of the spine, as one specific area of the spinal column tends to lengthen at a slower rate compared to the rest. The geometry and location of these abnormalities play a crucial role in determining the rate at which scoliosis progresses in magnitude as the child grows.

Unlike idiopathic scoliosis, congenital scoliosis is present at birth, as it arises from developmental issues during the embryonic stage. Due to its congenital nature, this form of scoliosis is typically detected at a younger age than idiopathic scoliosis. Early identification is facilitated by thorough examinations and imaging studies, allowing healthcare professionals to assess the extent of the malformations and plan appropriate management strategies.

 

Neuromuscular Scoliosis 

Secondary or non-idiopathic scoliosis encompasses cases where spinal curvature is a consequence of underlying neurological or muscular diseases. This category includes scoliosis associated with conditions such as cerebral palsy, spinal cord trauma, muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, and spina bifida. Unlike idiopathic scoliosis, this type tends to progress more rapidly, often necessitating surgical intervention for effective management.

 

Characteristics 

 

Scoliosis presents clinically with a distinct curvature of the spine, forming an “S” or “C” shape when viewed from the front or back. This curvature leads to noticeable asymmetries, including one shoulder appearing higher than the other, uneven hips, and a tilted waistline. A characteristic feature, particularly in thoracic scoliosis, is the presence of a rib hump, observable when the individual bends forward. Clothing may not hang symmetrically, and postural changes such as leaning to one side can be apparent. While not always present, some individuals with scoliosis may experience back pain or discomfort. In adolescents, the condition may progress during growth spurts, emphasising the importance of regular monitoring

 

Examination and diagnosis 

Scoliosis is usually confirmed through a physical examination, an x-ray, spinal radiograph, CT scan or MRI. The curve is measured by the Cobb Method and is diagnosed in terms of severity by the number of degrees.

The Cobb angle, measured on X-rays, serves as a crucial parameter in defining the severity of scoliosis. A minimum angulation of 10 degrees is considered the threshold to diagnose scoliosis. When the curvature falls between 15 and 20 degrees, some studies suggest that specific treatment may not be immediately necessary, advocating regular check-ups to monitor progression until bone maturity. Physiotherapy including exercise sessions both at the clinic and through a home program is recommended. 

In the range of 20 to 40 degrees, orthopaedic doctors commonly prescribe back braces to impede further curvature development. The type of brace recommended depends on factors such as the patient’s lifestyle, discipline, and the severity of the curve. A scoliosis-intensive rehabilitation program must be introduced. 

When the curvature exceeds 40 to 50 degrees or more, surgery may be deemed necessary to correct the spinal deformity. Various surgical procedures exist, with spinal fusion being a recurrent choice. This procedure involves linking the vertebrae together, preventing further curvature progression. The decision to pursue surgery is typically influenced by the degree of the curvature, the impact on the individual’s quality of life, and the potential for continued progression.

 

Role of physiotherapist 

The role of a physical therapist in the management of scoliosis involves three crucial tasks: informing, advising, and instructing. It is imperative to provide the patient and/or parents with clear and comprehensive information about the individual’s specific situation. This includes explaining the nature of scoliosis, its potential progression, and the available treatment options. Some physical therapists may recommend braces, such as the Milwaukee brace, to prevent the worsening of scoliosis.

A significant focus for physical therapists is guiding patients in performing the correct exercises tailored to their condition. Numerous studies suggest that exercises can have beneficial effects on individuals with idiopathic scoliosis. Beyond physical interventions, physiotherapists also consider biopsychosocial factors. For adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis experiencing chronic low back pain, therapists may assess and address additional factors such as insomnia, depression, anxiety, stress, and daytime sleepiness. Recognizing and managing these contributing factors becomes crucial in providing comprehensive care for individuals with scoliosis, addressing both the physical and psychosocial aspects of their experience.

One of the best approaches for scoliosis management is to use physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises (PSSE).A PSSE physiotherapy methodology must be based on scientific evidence and customised for each patient.

The SOSORT emphasises that PSSE physiotherapy used for the treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis differs from nonspecific physiotherapy in that it aims at three-dimensional self-correction of posture, stabilisation of corrected posture, patient education, and the integration of corrective positions into daily activities. The frequency of PSSE physiotherapy varies from 2 to 7 days per week, depending on the complexity of the technique used, the need of the patients, and their ability to follow the prescribed program. Long-term outpatient programs typically occur two–four times a week if the patient is ready to cooperate. Typically, PSSE physiotherapy is only performed by professionally trained instructors, as physical exercises are chosen based on the type and severity of scoliosis in each patient, and the nature of the exercises themselves depends on the methodology applied.

 

The most well-known PSSE physiotherapy schools of thought is The Schroth Method. Schroth exercises serve as a targeted and non-invasive approach to address scoliosis by focusing on de-rotating, elongating, and stabilising the spine in three dimensions. These exercises, conducted through physical therapy, center around restoring muscular symmetry and aligning posture. By specifically targeting imbalances in muscle strength and tone, the exercises work towards achieving a more balanced and aligned spine. Integral to Schroth exercises is the incorporation of breathing techniques, directing breath into the concave side of the body. This emphasis aims to facilitate improved spinal alignment and enhanced muscular control. Additionally, Schroth exercises prioritise developing awareness of posture, enabling individuals to actively maintain correct spinal alignment in various daily activities.



Role of chiropractor 

Chiropractors may use spinal adjustments or manipulations to help improve spinal alignment and mobility. While chiropractic adjustments cannot reverse the curvature of scoliosis, they may help reduce discomfort, improve function, and enhance the overall health of the spine.

 

Differences between chiropractic and physiotherapy 

Chiropractors and physiotherapists approach the treatment of scoliosis from different perspectives, utilising distinct techniques and interventions. There are some key differences between chiropractic care and physiotherapy in treating scoliosis:

 

Philosophy and Approach:

Chiropractic care often focuses on spinal manipulation and adjustments to improve spinal alignment and function. Chiropractors believe that misalignments in the spine (subluxations) can affect overall health and well-being.

Physiotherapy employs a variety of techniques such as exercises, manual therapy, and modalities to improve movement, function, and overall physical well-being. Physiotherapists often focus on restoring mobility, strength, and flexibility while addressing pain and dysfunction.

 

Treatment Techniques:

Chiropractors primarily use spinal adjustments, mobilisations, and manipulations to address spinal misalignments and restore proper movement and function to the spine.

Physiotherapists utilise a broader range of treatment techniques including exercises, stretches, manual therapy (such as joint mobilisations and soft tissue techniques), modalities (such as ultrasound and electrical stimulation), and postural training to address muscle imbalances, improve mobility, and alleviate pain.

 

Emphasis on Exercise and Rehabilitation:

Physiotherapy places a strong emphasis on exercise and rehabilitation to strengthen muscles, improve flexibility, and promote proper movement patterns. Physiotherapists often design personalised exercise programs tailored to the individual needs and goals of the patient.

While chiropractors may incorporate exercise and rehabilitation into their treatment plans, the emphasis may not be as prominent as in physiotherapy.

 

Scope of Practice:

Chiropractors primarily focus on spinal health and musculoskeletal conditions, including scoliosis. They may use adjustments and manipulations to address spinal misalignments and related symptoms.

Physiotherapists have a broader scope of practice and can address a wide range of musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiopulmonary conditions. They may use a variety of techniques to address functional limitations and promote overall physical well-being.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is scoliosis, and how is it diagnosed?

Scoliosis is a complex spinal deformity involving curvature in three planes. It is diagnosed by measuring the Cobb angle, with a significant angle considered as 10° or more. Diagnosis involves physical examination, X-rays, spinal radiographs, CT scans, or MRIs.

2. What are the different types of scoliosis, and how do they differ?

There are three main types of scoliosis: idiopathic scoliosis (80% of cases), congenital scoliosis (present at birth due to vertebrae abnormalities), and neuromuscular scoliosis (resulting from neurological or muscular conditions). Each type has distinct characteristics and may require different approaches to treatment.

3. What are the available treatment options for scoliosis, and when are they recommended?

Treatment options vary based on the severity of scoliosis. In mild cases (10-20 degrees), physiotherapy with specific exercises may be recommended. Bracing is commonly prescribed for curves between 20 and 40 degrees, while surgery becomes a consideration for curves exceeding 40 to 50 degrees or more. The type and frequency of treatment depend on individual factors.

4. How do physiotherapists contribute to scoliosis management, and what is the role of specific exercises?

Physiotherapists play a crucial role by providing information, advising, and instructing patients. They design personalized exercise programs, including Physiotherapeutic Scoliosis-Specific Exercises (PSSE) like the Schroth Method. These exercises focus on three-dimensional self-correction of posture, stabilizing corrected posture, and integrating corrective positions into daily activities.

5. What is the role of chiropractors in scoliosis treatment, and how does it differ from physiotherapy?

Chiropractors may use spinal adjustments to improve spinal alignment and mobility but cannot reverse scoliotic curvature. The difference lies in their approach; chiropractic care emphasizes spinal manipulation, while physiotherapy uses a broader range of techniques, exercises, and modalities to address muscle imbalances, improve mobility, and alleviate pain.

Conclusion

In conclusion, early detection and proactive management are paramount in addressing scoliosis, particularly among adolescents, with a heightened emphasis on females who are more prone to the condition. Regular postural check-ups and timely intervention play pivotal roles in preventing the progression of spinal curvature and mitigating potential complications such as low back pain. Seeking professional assessment and treatment from trained physiotherapists, such as those available at clinics like Synapse Physiotherapy, ensures individuals receive personalised care tailored to their unique needs. By initiating therapeutic exercises and interventions under the guidance of skilled practitioners, adolescents can embark on a path towards improved spinal health and overall well-being, thereby minimising the impact of scoliosis on their lives. Early intervention not only fosters better outcomes but also empowers individuals to actively manage their condition and embrace a healthier, more active lifestyle.

References

Seleviciene, V., Cesnaviciute, A., Strukcinskiene, B., Marcinowicz, L., Strazdiene, N., & Genowska, A. (2022). Physiotherapeutic Scoliosis-Specific Exercise Methodologies Used for Conservative Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis, and Their Effectiveness: An Extended Literature Review of Current Research and Practice. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(15), 9240. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159240

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Physiotheraphy Treatment for Frozen Shoulder: Synapse

Physiotheraphy Treatment for Frozen Shoulder_ Synapse
Physiotheraphy Treatment for Frozen Shoulder_ Synapse
Shoulder Pain

Introduction :Physio treatment for frozen shoulder

Frozen shoulder, also known as adhesive capsulitis, is a painful and debilitating condition that affects the shoulder joint, limiting its range of motion. Individuals experiencing frozen shoulders often find their daily activities compromised due to stiffness and pain. For people who are suffering from this condition, symptoms may develop suddenly and have a slow recovery phase. Recovery may take up to 2 or 3 years. Fortunately, there are a range of effective physio treatments for frozen shoulders to alleviate symptoms and restore shoulder function. At Synapse Physiotherapy, we will be able to help address these symptoms and help you recover to full health.

Understanding Frozen Shoulder:

Frozen shoulder develops gradually, typically in three stages. The first stage is the freezing stage, where individuals experience increasing pain with movement. This stage can last from a few weeks to 9 months. The second stage is the frozen stage, marked by reduced mobility and increased stiffness, this can last from 4 to 12 months. The final stage, the thawing stage, involves a gradual improvement in shoulder mobility. This usually lasts from 12 to 42 months.

 

There are no known causes of frozen shoulder however individuals with certain risk factors are more prone to suffer from frozen shoulder. These risk factors are diabetes, stroke, thyroid disorder, prolonged immobilisation, shoulder injury, and Parkinson’s disease. People aged 40 and older, particularly women are also more likely to be at risk of getting frozen shoulder.

 

Some symptoms of a frozen shoulder to look out for would be unexpected pain in the shoulder not resulting from an injury, difficulty lifting the arm above the head and extending your arm across the body, or in general any arm movement that feels restricted and in pain.

Physiotherapy and Its Role:

Undoubtedly, physiotherapy plays a crucial role in managing a frozen shoulder. Here at Synapse Physiotherapy, we aim to reduce pain, increase range of motion, and enhance overall shoulder function. Our professionally trained physiotherapists employ a variety of techniques, exercises, and modalities to achieve these goals. The following are some of the treatment techniques and exercises that are carried out by our physiotherapists:

Passive Range of Motion (PROM) Exercises:

Passive range of motion exercises involve a therapist gently moving the patient’s arm through various motions. This helps maintain flexibility and prevent further stiffness. PROM exercises are particularly beneficial in the painful and early frozen stages of shoulder dysfunction.

Active Range of Motion (AROM) Exercises:

As pain decreases and the shoulder begins to thaw, active range of motion exercises become crucial. Patients are encouraged to perform controlled movements on their own, gradually improving their ability to move the shoulder. These exercises are designed to restore strength and flexibility.

Stretching Exercises:

Stretching exercises target the muscles and connective tissues around the shoulder joint. Stretching helps improve flexibility and reduce stiffness. Therapists may incorporate wall stretches, pendulum exercises, and towel stretches to address specific areas of tightness.

Strengthening Exercises:

Strengthening the muscles surrounding the shoulder is essential for restoring function. Therapists design tailored exercise programs that focus on progressively building strength. Resistance bands, dumbbells, and bodyweight exercises may be utilised to target specific muscle groups.

Joint Mobilisation:

Joint mobilisation involves the therapist gently moving the joint in specific directions to improve its mobility. This technique helps reduce stiffness and enhances the shoulder’s range of motion. It is often used in conjunction with other exercises to optimise results.

Heat and Cold Therapy:

Applying heat or cold to the affected shoulder can relieve pain and inflammation. Heat therapy helps relax muscles and increase blood flow, while cold therapy helps reduce swelling. Therapists may recommend alternating between these modalities based on the individual’s needs.

Ultrasound Therapy:

Ultrasound therapy uses sound waves to stimulate deep tissues and promote healing. It can be effective in reducing pain and inflammation associated with a frozen shoulder. Therapists may incorporate ultrasound as part of a comprehensive treatment plan.

Electrical Stimulation:

Electrical stimulation, such as transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), can be employed to alleviate pain. By sending low-level electrical currents through the skin, this technique disrupts pain signals and provides relief. It is often used in combination with other therapeutic interventions.

Home Exercise Programmes:

To ensure continuity of care, our physiotherapists will prescribe home exercise programs. These programs are designed to empower individuals to continue their rehabilitation independently. Consistent engagement with prescribed exercises contributes significantly to the success of physiotherapy treatment.

Conclusion:

Frozen shoulder can be a challenging condition, but with the right physiotherapy interventions, individuals can experience significant improvement in pain and mobility. The key to successful treatment lies in early intervention and a tailored approach to address each patient’s specific needs. Whether through targeted exercises, modalities, or a combination of therapies, physiotherapy offers a path to unfreezing mobility and restoring the joy of pain-free shoulder movement. If you suspect you have frozen shoulder symptoms, come to Synapse Physiotherapy for a consultation today with a qualified physiotherapist and take a crucial step towards a comprehensive and effective treatment plan to tackle your frozen shoulder problem.

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Neck Pain | Sakit Leher

Shoulder Pain

What is Neck Pain | Sakit leher

Neck pain, also known as cervical pain, is a common medical condition characterized by discomfort or soreness in the neck region. The neck, or cervical spine, consists of seven vertebrae that support the weight of the head and allow for its movement. The pain can range from mild, and tolerable to severe and debilitating, and it may be acute (sudden onset) or chronic (long-lasting).

The causes of neck pain can vary and may include the following:

1. Muscle strain or tension

Overuse of neck muscles due to poor posture, long hours of sitting, repetitive movements, or sudden movements can lead to muscle strain and resultant pain.

2. Poor posture

Prolonged slouching, hunching over electronic devices, or maintaining an incorrect posture can put additional stress on the neck and cause discomfort.

3. Neck injuries

Traumatic incidents like whiplash from car accidents, falls, or sports injuries can damage the structures in the neck and lead to pain.

4. Degenerative conditions

Conditions like osteoarthritis, cervical spondylosis, or herniated discs can cause wear and tear on the cervical spine, leading to pain and reduced mobility.

5. Nerve compression

Herniated discs or bone spurs can compress the nerves in the neck, leading to pain, tingling, or weakness in the arms or hands.

6. Infections and inflammation

Infections like meningitis or conditions like cervical radiculitis (inflammation of the nerve roots) can cause neck pain.

7. Medical conditions

Certain medical conditions like fibromyalgia or rheumatoid arthritis can cause generalized body pain, including neck pain.

8. Stress and tension

Emotional stress and anxiety can cause muscle tension in the neck, leading to discomfort.

Goals of Physiotherapy for Neck Pain

Overall, the goal of physiotherapy for neck pain is to improve the patient’s physical well-being, functionality, and comfort, while minimizing the risk of recurrent or chronic neck pain. It is important for patients to actively participate in their treatment and follow the guidance provided by their physiotherapist to achieve the best results.

When is Physiotherapy Recommended for Neck Pain?

Physiotherapy is often recommended for neck pain in various situations, as it can be an effective treatment approach for addressing the underlying causes and promoting recovery. Some common scenarios when physiotherapy is recommended for neck pain include:

 

  1. Muscle Strain or Sprain
  2. Whiplash Injury
  3. Cervical Disc Problems 
  4. Postural Problems
  5. Nerve Compression
  6. Arthritis or Degenerative Conditions
  7. Recovery from Neck Surgery
  8. Chronic Neck Pain

 

It’s important to note that the appropriateness of physiotherapy for neck pain depends on the specific cause and severity of the condition. Always seek professional advice for personalized and accurate recommendations.

Physiotherapy Treatment for Neck Pain Available in Synapse

Physiotherapy is often recommended for neck pain in various situations, as it can be an effective treatment approach for addressing the underlying causes and promoting recovery. Some common scenarios when physiotherapy is recommended for neck pain include:

 

  1. Muscle Strain or Sprain
  2. Whiplash Injury
  3. Cervical Disc Problems 
  4. Postural Problems
  5. Nerve Compression
  6. Arthritis or Degenerative Conditions
  7. Recovery from Neck Surgery
  8. Chronic Neck Pain

 

It’s important to note that the appropriateness of physiotherapy for neck pain depends on the specific cause and severity of the condition. Always seek professional advice for personalized and accurate recommendations.

Physiotherapy Treatment Available in Synapse

Treatment for neck pain depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. 

At Synapse Physiotherapy, treatments available for neck pain may include the following

1. Manual Therapy

This involves hands-on techniques such as joint mobilization or manipulation to improve the mobility of the neck and reduce pain.

2. Neck Exercises

Specific exercises are prescribed to strengthen and stretch the muscles in the neck and upper back. Strengthening exercises help stabilize the neck, while stretching exercises improve flexibility and reduce muscle tension.

3. Posture Correction

Physiotherapists can provide guidance on maintaining proper posture, especially when sitting for extended periods, using the computer, or engaging in activities that may strain the neck.

4. Heat and Cold Therapy

Applying heat or cold packs to the affected area can help reduce inflammation and alleviate pain.

5. Electrotherapy

Techniques such as transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) or ultrasound may be used to provide pain relief and promote healing.

6. Massage

Gentle massage can help relax tense muscles and improve blood circulation in the neck area.

7. Range of Motion Exercises

These exercises help improve the neck’s flexibility and reduce stiffness.

8. Education and Ergonomics

Physiotherapists can educate patients about the correct ergonomics at workstations and during daily activities to prevent further strain on the neck.

9. Traction

In some cases, cervical traction may be used to gently stretch the neck and relieve pressure on the spinal discs and nerves.

10. Dry needling

While not strictly physiotherapy, some physiotherapists may include dry needling service as part of the treatment plan for neck pain.

 

However, it’s important to remember that each individual’s neck pain may have different underlying causes and manifestations. Our physiotherapists will perform a thorough assessment to tailor a treatment plan suited to the patient’s specific needs. 

Common Questions about Neck Pain

1. What are the common causes of neck pain?

Muscle strain: Often caused by poor posture, prolonged sitting, or sudden movements.

Poor ergonomics: Incorrect positioning while working, using devices, or sleeping can strain the neck.

Injuries: Whiplash from accidents or sports-related injuries.

Degenerative Conditions: Conditions like osteoarthritis or cervical spondylosis.

2. When should I seek medical attention for my neck pain?

Severe pain or stiffness: Especially if it’s sudden or accompanied by numbness or weakness.

Pain after an injury: Especially if there’s difficulty moving your neck or severe discomfort.

Radiating pain: Pain that moves down your arms or legs.

Persistent pain: Lasting for more than a few days despite self-care measures.

3. Is neck pain a symptom of a serious medical condition?

Yes, it can be, While most cases of neck pain are due to minor issues like muscle strain, it can also be a symptom of more serious conditions like meningitis, spinal cord compression, or even heart attack in rare cases.

4. What are some home remedies or self-care measures to alleviate neck pain?

Improving posture: Ensure ergonomic positions while working or using devices.

Applying heat or ice: Alternating between heat and ice packs can alleviate pain.

Gentle exercises: Stretching or yoga can help relax tense muscles.

Over-the-counter pain relievers: Ibuprofen or acetaminophen can provide temporary relief.

5. How can I prevent neck pain in my daily activities and work routine?

Maintain good posture: Sit and stand tall with shoulders relaxed.

Take breaks: Regularly stretch and change positions if you have a desk job.

Adjust ergonomics: Use ergonomic chairs and ensure your computer monitor is at eye level.

Strengthen neck muscles: Incorporate exercises that strengthen neck and upper back muscles.

Sleeping posture: Use a pillow that supports the natural curve of your neck while sleeping.

 

Remember that while seeking information is helpful, it’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice and accurate diagnosis and treatment of neck pain.

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What is Home Physiotherapy?

Leg Pain, Muscle Pain, Shoulder Pain

Unrivalled Expertise: Qualified and Registered Professionals

At Synapse Physiotherapy, we believe that the foundation of exceptional care lies in the hands of qualified and registered professionals. Our Home Physiotherapy team comprises experienced physiotherapists who are either registered with the Malaysian Physiotherapy Association (MPA) and/or The Chartered Society of Physiotherapy (UK). This ensures that our therapists possess the necessary expertise, skills, and knowledge to provide evidence-based, top-notch care to our patients.

 

Collaborative Care: Working with Medical Specialists ​

We understand the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to healthcare, especially for complex cases. That’s why our Home Physiotherapy Services go beyond the confines of our clinic walls and work closely with orthopedic surgeons, spine doctors, cardiologists, neurosurgeons, and radiologists in various hospitals. This collaboration enables us to have a comprehensive understanding of each patient’s condition and tailor the treatment plan accordingly, ensuring seamless continuity of care and the best possible outcomes.

Personalized Treatment Plans: Your Needs, Your Lifestyle

At Synapse Physiotherapy, we recognize that each patient is unique, and their treatment plans should reflect that individuality. Our Home Physiotherapy Services take a patient-centered approach, where the therapy is customized based on the patient’s specific condition, goals, and lifestyle. This personalized care ensures that every patient receives the attention and treatments they need to progress on their journey to recovery effectively.

Holistic Services: Considering Safety and Environment

The safety and well-being of our patients are paramount. As we provide Home Physiotherapy Services, we take into consideration social and environmental factors that may impact a patient’s progress and safety. Our therapists conduct thorough assessments of the home environment to identify potential hazards and make necessary adjustments to prevent accidents or injuries during the rehabilitation process.

Regular Re-Assessment: Monitoring Progress and Adjusting Plans

As recovery progresses, needs may change, and new challenges may arise. Our Home Physiotherapy Services include regular re-assessments of a patient’s condition to monitor progress and identify any changes in treatment requirements. This dynamic approach allows us to adjust the treatment plan as necessary, ensuring that patients receive the most appropriate and effective care throughout their healing journey.

Conditions Addressed: A Comprehensive Scope

Synapse Physiotherapy’s Home Physiotherapy Services cater to a wide range of conditions, providing specialized care in the comfort of your home. Some of the conditions that can be addressed include:

1. Musculoskeletal and Sports Injuries:

Whether it’s a sprain, strain, or muscle tear, our experienced physiotherapists have the expertise to treat musculoskeletal injuries resulting from sports activities, accidents, or other causes. By applying targeted exercises and manual therapies, we help patients regain strength, flexibility, and mobility.

2. Neurological Issues:

Neurological conditions, such as stroke, can significantly impact mobility and independence. Our Home Physiotherapy team works diligently to improve motor function, balance, and coordination, helping patients reclaim control over their lives and perform daily tasks with confidence.

3. Post-Operative Rehabilitation:

After surgery, a structured rehabilitation plan is crucial for a successful recovery. Our Home Physiotherapy Services offer personalized postoperation rehabilitation, supporting patients in regaining functionality and preventing complications during the healing process.

4. Geriatric and Elderly Rehabilitation:

As individuals age, unique challenges may arise that require specialised care. Our Home Physiotherapy team is well-versed in addressing the needs of the elderly, helping them maintain their independence, mobility, and overall well-being.

Conclusion

Synapse Physiotherapy’s Home Physiotherapy Services redefine healthcare by bringing expert care directly to your doorstep. With qualified and registered professionals, collaborative care with medical specialists, personalized treatment plans, holistic services, patient education, and regular re-assessments, our Home Physiotherapy Services are designed to empower patients on their journey to optimal health and mobility. Whether it’s musculoskeletal injuries, neurological issues, postoperation recovery, or geriatric rehabilitation, Synapse Physiotherapy is your trusted partner in enhancing your well-being and quality of life. To experience the convenience and effectiveness of our Home Physiotherapy Services, contact us at +603-20115779 or enquiry.damansara@synapse.com.my. Empower your recovery with Synapse Physiotherapy’s Home Physiotherapy Services today.

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What is Sports Physiotherapy?

Leg Pain, Muscle Pain, Shoulder Pain

What is sports physiotherapy?

Sports physiotherapy is a specialized branch of physiotherapy that focuses on the prevention, assessment, treatment and rehabilitation of injuries and conditions (such as tennis elbow, golfers elbow, back pain, groin strain, ligament injuries in knee and ankles etc) that are related to sports or physical activity.

The goal of sports physiotherapy is to help athletes and active individuals recover from their injuries, optimize performance, and prevent further injuries. 

What are the key areas of sports physiotherapy?

1) Injury Prevention

Sports physiotherapists work with athletes and active individuals to identify potential risk factors for injuries and design personalized prevention programs. These programmes may include strength and conditioning exercises, flexibility training, biomechanical analysis, and education on proper body mechanics during sports activities.

2) Assessment and Diagnosis

When athletes sustain injuries, sports physiotherapists assess and diagnose the extent of the injury. They use various physical examination techniques and may also refer patients to specialists for further investigation such as X-rays, MRI, or ultrasound to gain a comprehensive understanding of the injury’s nature and severity.

3) Treatment and Rehabilitation

Based on the assessment, sports physiotherapists develop individualised treatment and rehabilitation plans. These plans typically involve a combination of manual therapies, exercises, and modalities such as ultrasound, electrical stimulation, or cryotherapy. The focus is on reducing pain, restoring function, and promoting the healing process.

4) Sports-Specific Training

Sports physiotherapists tailor their treatment approaches to the specific demands of each sport or activity. They often work in collaboration with coaches and trainers to integrate rehabilitative exercises into an athlete’s training regimen.

5) Return to Play

One of the primary objectives of sports physiotherapy is to facilitate a safe return to sports or physical activity after an injury. The therapist monitors the athlete’s progress closely and makes adjustments to the treatment plan as needed to ensure a smooth and successful return to play.

6) Performance Enhancement

Sports physiotherapists not only help athletes recover from injuries but also play a vital role in optimizing their performance. By identifying areas of weakness or imbalance, they can design specialized training programs to enhance an athlete’s strength, flexibility, and overall physical condition.

7) Education and Injury Management

Sports physiotherapists educate athletes and active individuals about injury prevention, self-management techniques, and proper warm-up and cool-down exercises. They also advise on strategies to avoid overtraining and recognize early signs of potential injuries.

How does it work?

Sports physiotherapy works by applying specialized knowledge and techniques to assess, treat, and manage injuries and conditions related to sports and physical activity. The process typically involves the following steps:

Step 1: Assessment

The first step is a thorough assessment of the athlete or active individual. The sports physiotherapist will gather information about the person’s medical history, the nature of their sports or physical activity, and details about the injury or condition. They will then perform a physical examination to evaluate the affected area, assess range of motion, strength, flexibility, and identify any areas of concern.

Step 2: Diagnosis

Based on the assessment findings, the sports physiotherapist will make a diagnosis or work in collaboration with other healthcare professionals to determine the underlying cause of the pain or injury.

Step 3: Treatment Plan

Once the diagnosis is established, the sports physiotherapist will create a personalized treatment plan. The plan may include a combination of manual therapies, exercises, and modalities to address the specific needs of the individual.

  • Manual Therapies: Sports physiotherapists use various hands-on techniques such as joint mobilization, soft tissue mobilization, and myofascial release to reduce pain, improve joint mobility, and promote healing.
  • Exercises: They design specific therapeutic exercises to strengthen weak muscles, improve flexibility, and restore functional movement patterns. These exercises are often tailored to the demands of the athlete’s sport or activity.
  • Modalities: Sports physiotherapists may use therapeutic modalities such as ultrasound, electrical stimulation, heat, or ice to complement the treatment and facilitate the healing process.

Step 4: Rehabilitation

Throughout the treatment process, sports physiotherapists closely monitor the individual’s progress and adjust the treatment plan as needed. They guide the athlete through a rehabilitation program to gradually increase activity levels and regain functional strength and flexibility.

Step 5: Injury Prevention

Sports physiotherapists also focus on preventing future injuries by educating athletes on proper warm-up and cool-down techniques, biomechanics, and injury prevention exercises.

Step 6: Return to Play

For athletes recovering from injuries, the sports physiotherapist plays a crucial role in helping them safely return to their sport or physical activity. They assess the athlete’s readiness and may collaborate with coaches and trainers to ensure a smooth transition back to full activity.

Step 7: Performance Enhancement

In addition to injury management, sports physiotherapy can be utilized to optimize an athlete’s performance. By identifying areas of weakness or limitations, the physiotherapist can design specific training programs to improve athletic performance and reduce the risk of injuries.

What are the sports that frequently lead to injuries?

Various sports can lead to a variety of injuries due to the high demands that each sport places on the body and also not to mention the potential injuries to high impact movements or collisions.

Here are some of the sports that can lead to injuries:

1) Football (Soccer): Injuries commonly occur due to frequent changes in direction, high-speed running, collisions, and the nature of the sport, which involves a lot of running and kicking.

2) Rugby: Involves physical contact, which can lead to a range of injuries, including sprains, dislocations, and concussions.

3) Basketball: Injuries often occur due to jumping, landing, sudden stops, and lateral movements, leading to ankle sprains, knee injuries, and finger fractures.

4) Racket sports such as tennis, badminton, and squash: Repetitive motions and sudden bursts of speed in these racket games can lead to shoulder, elbow, and knee injuries.

5) Golf: Improper swing techniques and repetitive motion such as swings with a heavy club can cause injuries to the lower back, shoulders, elbows, and wrist.

6) Volleyball: Jumping and landing in volleyball can cause ankle sprains, finger injuries, and knee problems.

Which conditions/sports injuries can be addressed through sports therapy?

A) Sprains and Strains: Sports physiotherapy can help in the rehabilitation of ligament sprains and muscle strains, commonly occurring in sports like football, basketball, and tennis.

 

B) Tendinitis and Tendinopathy: Sports that involve repetitive movements, such as running, cycling, and swimming, can lead to tendonitis or tendinopathy. Sports physiotherapists can develop exercise programs to promote tendon healing and reduce pain.

 

C) Fractures and Dislocations: After fractures or dislocations, sports physiotherapy can aid in the recovery process by improving joint mobility, strengthening surrounding muscles, and guiding athletes back to their activities safely.

 

D) Rotator Cuff Injuries: Sports that require overhead movements, like baseball, swimming, and tennis, can lead to rotator cuff injuries. Sports physiotherapy can help in rehabilitating the shoulder and restoring function.

 

E) Knee Injuries: Sports physiotherapy is beneficial in managing various knee injuries, such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, meniscus tears, and patellofemoral pain syndrome.

 

F) Ankle Sprains: Ankle sprains are common in sports like soccer, basketball, and running. Sports physiotherapy can aid in the healing process and prevent recurrent sprains through exercises and proprioceptive training.

 

G) Overuse Injuries: Many sports involve repetitive movements that can lead to overuse injuries, such as stress fractures, tendonitis, and shin splints. Sports physiotherapists can help athletes manage these conditions by addressing contributing factors and providing appropriate rest and exercise plans.

 

H) Muscle Imbalances: Sports physiotherapy can identify and address muscle imbalances, which can contribute to a variety of injuries and affect athletic performance.

 

I) Post-Surgical Rehabilitation: Following orthopedic surgeries related to sports injuries, sports physiotherapy is crucial for optimizing recovery and restoring function.

 

J) Postural Problems: Sports physiotherapists can help athletes improve their posture, which can reduce the risk of injuries and enhance performance.

 

K) Core Stability and Balance Training: Proper core stability and balance are essential for athletic performance and injury prevention. Sports physiotherapists can develop targeted exercise programs to improve these aspects.

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Shoulder Pain | Sakit Bahu

Shoulder Pain | Sakit Bahu
Shoulder Pain | Sakit Bahu
Muscle Pain, Shoulder Pain

Shoulder pain (Sakit Bahu) is discomfort or sensation of pain experienced in the shoulder joint and surrounding areas. The shoulder joint is a complex structure that allows for a wide range of motion and is made up of bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Any damage or inflammation in these components can lead to shoulder pain.

 

Common causes of shoulder pain include overuse injuries, such as repetitive movements or

improper lifting, which can strain the muscles and tendons. Additionally, conditions like rotator cuff tears, frozen shoulder (adhesive capsulitis), shoulder impingement, and arthritis can contribute to pain and limited mobility.

 

Shoulder pain may manifest as aching, sharp, or stabbing sensations and can be accompanied by stiffness and weakness in the affected area. It may also radiate to the neck, arm, or back. Daily activities like reaching overhead, carrying objects, or even sleeping on the affected side can exacerbate the pain.

 

Proper diagnosis of the underlying cause is crucial for effective treatment. Treatment options

may include rest, physical therapy, anti-inflammatory medications, and in some cases, surgical interventions. Shoulder pain can significantly impact a person’s quality of life, so seeking timely medical attention is essential to manage the pain and prevent further complications.

Goals of Physiotherapy for Shoulder Pain | Sakit Bahu

The goals of physiotherapy in treating shoulder pain are to:

Relieve pain

Physiotherapists use various techniques, such as manual therapy, stretching, and modalities like heat or ice, to alleviate pain and discomfort in the shoulder region.

Restore range of motion

Physiotherapy aims to improve the shoulder’s flexibility and restore its full range of motion, which may have been affected by injuries or conditions.

Strengthen muscles

Targeted exercises are prescribed to strengthen the muscles around the shoulder joint, including the rotator cuff muscles, to enhance stability and support.

Improve posture and mechanics

Physiotherapists work on correcting poor posture and dysfunctional movement patterns that may contribute to shoulder pain, reducing strain on the shoulder joint.

Reduce inflammation and swelling

Various techniques, like ultrasound or electrical stimulation can be used to manage inflammation and swelling in the shoulder area.

Enhance functional abilities

Physiotherapy focuses on improving the shoulder’s functional abilities to enable patients to perform daily activities with less pain and improved ease.

Prevent future injuries

Physiotherapists educate patients on proper body mechanics and exercises to prevent recurrent shoulder injuries and maintain long-term shoulder health.

Increase overall physical fitness

In addition to shoulder-specific exercises, physiotherapy may include overall fitness training to improve the patient’s overall strength, endurance, and flexibility.

Provide education and self-management strategies

Physiotherapists educate patients about their condition, treatment options, and self-management strategies to empower them to take an active role in their recovery and ongoing shoulder health.

 

Overall, the primary aim of physiotherapy in treating shoulder pain is to optimize function, reduce pain, and enhance the patient’s overall quality of life.

When is Physiotherapy Recommended for Shoulder Pain?

Physiotherapy is often recommended for shoulder pain when the discomfort or limited mobility is caused by musculoskeletal issues, injuries, or certain medical conditions affecting the shoulder joint. It is generally considered a conservative and non-invasive approach before considering more aggressive treatments like surgery.

 

Physiotherapy is recommended in the following situations:

Acute injuries

After accidents or sports-related injuries causing shoulder pain, physiotherapy can aid in the recovery process by promoting healing, reducing inflammation, and restoring function.

Overuse injuries

Repetitive activities or improper mechanics can lead to overuse injuries, and physiotherapy helps in managing pain, strengthening muscles, and improving movement patterns.

Degenerative conditions

Conditions like osteoarthritis and rotator cuff tendinopathy benefit from physiotherapy to manage pain, maintain joint function, and enhance stability.

Pre- and post-surgery

Physiotherapy can be used to prepare the shoulder for surgery, improve post-operative recovery, and enhance the success of surgical interventions.

Chronic shoulder pain

For long-lasting or recurring shoulder pain, physiotherapy offers a

comprehensive approach to alleviate pain, improve function, and prevent future flare-ups.

Frozen shoulder

Physiotherapy is essential in managing adhesive capsulitis by preventing stiffness and restoring mobility. Overall, physiotherapy is recommended for shoulder pain when the goal is to address the underlying causes, improve shoulder function, and enhance the patient’s quality of life without resorting to more invasive treatments.

Synapse Physiotherapy Treatment Available for Leg Pain

Physiotherapy treatments for leg pain may vary depending on the specific cause, severity, and individual’s overall health. Some common physiotherapy treatments for leg pain include:

Manual Therapy
Hands-on techniques, such as joint mobilization and manipulation, help reduce pain, improve joint mobility, and relax muscle tension.

 

Therapeutic Exercises
Tailored exercises that focus on strengthening and stretching the leg muscles can aid in relieving pain and improving function.

 

Soft Tissue Mobilization
Techniques like massage and myofascial release can release tension in the soft tissues and reduce pain.

 

Electrical Stimulation
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and other electrical modalities can help manage pain by interfering with pain signals.

 

Ultrasound Therapy
This involves using sound waves to generate heat deep within tissues, promoting blood flow and aiding in tissue healing.

Synapse Physiotherapy Treatment Available for Shoulder Pain

Manual Therapy

Involves using skilled hands-on techniques to manipulate muscles, joints, and soft tissues, aiming to alleviate pain, improve mobility, restore function, and facilitate the body’s natural healing process.

Electrotherapy

Electrotherapy employs electrical currents or impulses to treat pain, promote tissue healing, and improve muscle function. It’s a non-invasive, safe, and effective modality used in physiotherapy and rehabilitation settings.

Shockwave Therapy

A non-invasive medical treatment that uses acoustic waves to stimulate tissue repair and reduce pain in conditions like tendinitis, plantar fasciitis, and calcific shoulder tendinopathy.

TECAR Therapy

Transfer of Energy Capacitive and Resistive therapy is a cutting-edge machine that uses electromagnetic waves to promote tissue healing, reduce pain, and enhance muscle function. It works by transferring energy deep into tissues, accelerating the body’s natural recovery processes.

Electrotherapy

Involves tailored made physical activities and movements prescribed by a physiotherapist to improve flexibility, strength, endurance, balance, and overall function. It aims to rehabilitate injuries, prevent recurrence, and enhance the patient’s quality of life.

Common Questions about Shoulder Pain

Shoulder pain can stem from various reasons, including:

 

  • Rotator cuff injuries: These involve strains or tears in the tendons and muscles around the shoulder joint.
  • Frozen shoulder: Also known as adhesive capsulitis, it involves stiffness and pain in the shoulder joint.
  • Shoulder arthritis: Osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis can affect the shoulder joint, leading to pain and stiffness.
  • Bursitis: Inflammation of the bursa, the fluid-filled sacs that cushion the joints, can cause shoulder pain.
  • Shoulder dislocation or instability: Injuries that cause the shoulder joint to pop out of place or feel loose.
  • Tendonitis: Inflammation of the tendons due to overuse or repetitive motions.
  • Fractures or trauma: Broken bones or injuries can result in severe shoulder pain.

Serious shoulder pain usually involves intense, persistent pain that interferes with daily activities or is accompanied by other symptoms like swelling, bruising, inability to move the arm, or a sudden injury. Minor aches or strains tend to be less severe and often improve with rest or mild pain management techniques.

It’s advisable to seek medical attention if you experience:

 

  • Intense or persistent shoulder pain that doesn’t improve with rest or over-the-counter medications.
  • Difficulty in moving the shoulder or raising the arm.
  • Swelling, redness, or warmth around the shoulder joint.
  • Shoulder pain after an injury or accident.
  • Signs of infection like fever or drainage from the shoulder area.
  • Numbness or tingling in the arm or hand along with shoulder pain.

Yes, shoulder pain can be a symptom of various underlying issues such as:

 

Heart problems: Sometimes, heart-related issues like a heart attack can manifest as shoulder pain.

Gallbladder disease: Pain from the gallbladder can radiate to the shoulder.

Lung conditions: In some cases, lung conditions like pneumonia may cause shoulder pain.

Cervical spine issues: Nerve impingement or problems in the cervical spine can cause referred pain in the shoulder.

Several factors can increase the likelihood of experiencing shoulder pain, including:

 

Aging: As people age, the risk of developing shoulder problems, such as arthritis or tendonitis, increases.

Overuse or repetitive movements: Occupations or sports that involve repetitive shoulder movements can lead to strains or injuries.

Poor posture: Bad posture can strain the muscles and tendons in the shoulder region.

Previous shoulder injuries: Past injuries to the shoulder can make it more susceptible to future problems.

Certain medical conditions: Conditions like diabetes or thyroid disorders can increase the risk of shoulder issues.

Remember, it is essential to consult a healthcare professional to address specific concerns about shoulder pain, as the answers to these questions may vary depending on individual circumstances and medical history.